Neurotransmitters

The most important Neurotransmitters for mental health:

Histamine: acts mostly on immune system, but also on wakefulness.

Serotonin: Contributes for feelings of well-being and happiness. Regulates mood, appetite and sleep. Too little causes depression, problems with anger control, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and suicide.

Dopamine: inhibitory (neuron blocker) neurotransmiter that plays a major role in reward-motivated behavior. It´s released when you feed your “ego” and stops the bad emotions you were having, allowing pleasure. But for hunger and pains, this effect is provided by Endorphin instead. Lack of dopamine causes compulsive behavior, poor work memory, sedation and apathy. It´s associated with Parkinson’s disease, ADHD, schizophrenia, and drug addiction.

Norepinephrine (formerly called noradrenalin): Brings us to state of high alert, triggering the fight or flight reaction and releasing Adrenalin into blood during . It is also important for forming memories.

Adrenalin (epinephrine): Gets depleted by stress and increased by exercise. It promotes fear. Creates long-lasting memories for arousing events.

Gaba: usually inhibitory, it stops your fears. Lack of it results in high anxiety and epilepsy. Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

As shown below, Neurotransmitters are produced in chains. This means a deficiency or excess of the single nutrient result in improper levels of multiple neurotransmitters.

Neurotransmitters
The image uses traced arrows to identify co-factors, which are helpers (not consumed), and regular arrows to identify the building blocks which are actually consumed.

COPPER

The Dopamine to Norepinephrine synthesis uses Copper as a co-factor and an excess of Copper (Hypercupremia) causes an excess of Norepinephrine, and may also deplete Dopamine.

PLP

PLP means Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate, the metabolically active form of Vitamin B6, which participates in over 100 metabolic processes in our body, either a helper (co-factor/enzime) and substrate (building block). I happens that many people have trouble synthesizing enough PLP. Low PLP levels result in even lower levels of Serotonin and Gaba, were PLP is a required nutrient, as shown by the image. If PLP levels get depleted, they will also reduce Dopamine, AcethylCholine and Histamine production, where PLP is a co-factor.

Image below shows how your biotype affects your neurotransmitters, where the most predominant and common effects are marked in bold.

Hyper-
Cupremia
Pyrroluria Under-
Methylation
Over-
Methylation
Histamine High Low
Serotonin M
O
O
D
Depleted Low Elevated
Dopamine (Low) (Low) Low Elevated
Norepinephrine Elevated (Low) (Elevated)
Adrenaline High (Low) (Elevated)
Gaba Depleted

 

PLP Synthesis

Although you can buy the active B6 form as ‘P-5-P’ vitamin supplement, your body won´t absorb it directly. Instead, you´r intestines will break it down and absorb B6 (PL) and phosphate (P) separately. Then you need to synthesize them together again in the liver. Only then PLP can be carried out to your brain through your blood.

The B6 activation process is catalyzed by the “Pyridoxal Kinase” enzime and this process also converts ATP to ADP. In a simple model, that means:

ATP + B6 <=> ADP + PLP

However, a co-factor for ATP and Zinc is the most effective option. So the process requires Zinc-ATP which comes from Zinc-MT (MT = Metallothionein). Thus PLP synthesis requires sufficient amounts of Zinc. Stress depletes Zinc especially for people with Pyrrole Disorder, which causes a double deficiency of Zinc and B6.

Also, vitamins B2 (Riboflavolin) and B3 (Niancin) are also essential for PLP synthesis.

PLP Synthesis

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s